Features: difficulties with transportation and usage, limited production
According to the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russia's COVID-19 vaccine is highly effective and can compete with foreign analogues. Nevertheless, its main drawback in modern conditions is limited production capacity. Technologically speaking, it is an interesting combination of two different types of adenovirus vectors, which are able to form a stable immunity to the coronavirus infection. However, it is impossible to provide everyone with the drug, since Russia could produce no more than 1 million Sputnik V doses by the end of this year. Also, there are difficulties with transportation as the vaccine must be stored at a temperature of minus 18°C. Besides, the vaccination consists of two doses, which complicates the whole process.
Pfizer and Moderna
Efficiency: 95% (Pfizer) and 94.5% (Moderna)
Features: marked and severe side effects (Moderna), difficulties with transportation and storage (Pfizer)
In mid-November 2020, three companies announced the successful clinical trials of their vaccines against the coronavirus. One of the vaccines was jointly developed by German company BioNTech and US firm Pfizer, while the other was created by Moderna. More detailed information about the trials will be available in international scientific papers soon. Now the developers' efforts are focused on getting regulatory approval in order to enter the market. They are required to submit extensive documentation to the relevant state bodies. According to preliminary data, the companies are planning to produce globally up to 50 million vaccine doses in 2020 and up to 1.3 billion doses in 2021. However, the drugs have their own drawbacks as well. The Pfizer vaccine has difficulties with transportation and storage. It needs to be stored at a temperature of minus 70°C. Once the vaccine is thawed, it can be kept for no longer than five days. Moreover, the coronavirus vaccination requires two shots, which could make the process more complicated. As for Moderna's vaccine, some participants in the trials revealed strong side effects, including fatigue, shivering, headaches, high fever, and so on.
Vaccine from China's CanSino Biologics
Features: marked side effects
The Chinese COVID-19 vaccine was developed jointly by CanSino Biologics, the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, and the Chinese government's Academy of Military Medical Sciences. Back in May 2020, clinical trials proved the vaccine was safe and efficient. However, according to the follow-up studies, some participants reported side effects. In particular, recipients aged 45-60 had fewer antibodies to COVID-19. Moreover, 81% of the participants noted such symptoms as a headache, muscle pain, fatigue, and others. China's military has been using this vaccine since June. Now the local manufacturers are underway to bring their COVID-19 vaccine to the international markets. The registration procedure may begin in the nearest future. China, in turn, has expressed its readiness to ensure an uninterrupted supply of vaccines.